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Solanum tuberosum

Potato (Wikipedia)

Potato
Patates.jpg
Potato cultivars appear in a variety of colors, shapes, and sizes.
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Tracheophytes
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Eudicots
Clade:Asterids
Order:Solanales
Family:Solanaceae
Genus:Solanum
Species:
S. tuberosum
Binomial name
Solanum tuberosum
Synonyms
List
    • Battata tuberosa (L.) Hill
    • Larnax sylvarum subsp. novogranatensis N.W.Sawyer
    • Lycopersicon tuberosum (L.) Mill.
    • Parmentiera edulis Raf.
    • Solanum andigenum Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum convar. acutifolium Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum convar. adpressipilosum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. alccai-huarmi Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. ancacc-maquin Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. arcuatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum subsp. argentinicum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum subsp. australiperuvianum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum subsp. aya-papa Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. aymaranum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. basiscopum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. bifidum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. bolivianum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum subsp. bolivianum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum convar. brachistylum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum convar. brevicalyces Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. brevicalyx Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum convar. brevipilosum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. caesium Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. caiceda Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum var. carhua Vargas
    • Solanum andigenum f. ccompetillo Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. ccompis Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. ccusi Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum subsp. centraliperuvianum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. cevallosii Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. chalcoense Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum f. chimaco Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. ckello-huaccoto Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. coeruleum Lechn. ex Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum var. colombianum Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum subsp. colombianum (Bukasov) Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. conicicolumnatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. cryptostylum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum convar. curtibaccatum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. cuzcoense Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. digitotuberosum Vargas
    • Solanum andigenum f. dilatatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. discolor Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum subsp. ecuatorianum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum convar. elongatibaccatum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. elongatipedicellatum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. globosum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. grauense Vargas
    • Solanum andigenum f. guatemalense Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum var. hederiforme Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum var. herrerae Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. huaca-layra Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. huairuru Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. huallata Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. huaman-uma Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. imilla Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. incrassatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. juninum Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum f. lanciacuminatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. lapazense Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. latius Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. lecke-umo Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. lilacinoflorum Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum f. lisarassa Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum f. llutuc-runtum Lechn. ex Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum convar. longiacuminatum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. longibaccatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum convar. macron Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. magnicorollatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. mexicanum Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum f. microstigma Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum convar. microstigmatum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. nodosum Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum convar. nudiculum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum convar. obtusiacuminatum Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. ovatibaccatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. pacus Lechn. ex Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum f. pallidum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. platyantherum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. pomacanchicum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. ppacc-nacha Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. ppaqui Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum convar. puca-mata Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. quechuanum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. sihuanum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. socco-huaccoto Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum convar. stenon Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum var. stenophyllum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. sunchchu Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum subsp. tarmense Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. tenue Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. tiahuanacense Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum convar. titicacense Lechn.
    • Solanum andigenum f. tocanum Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum f. tolucanum Bukasov
    • Solanum andigenum f. uncuna Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum apurimacense Vargas
    • Solanum aracatscha Besser
    • Solanum aracc-papa Juz. ex Rybin
    • Solanum ascasabii Hawkes
    • Solanum boyacense Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum caniarense Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum cardenasii Hawkes
    • Solanum cayeuxi Berthault
    • Solanum chariense A.Chev.
    • Solanum chaucha Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum chaucha var. ccoe-sulla Ochoa
    • Solanum chaucha var. ckati Ochoa
    • Solanum chaucha var. khoyllu Ochoa
    • Solanum chaucha var. puca-suitu Ochoa
    • Solanum chaucha f. purpureum Hawkes
    • Solanum chaucha f. roseum Hawkes
    • Solanum chaucha var. surimana Ochoa
    • Solanum chiloense (A.DC.) Berthault
    • Solanum chilotanum Hawkes
    • Solanum chilotanum var. angustifurcatum Lechn.
    • Solanum chilotanum f. magnicorollatum Lechn.
    • Solanum chilotanum f. parvicorollatum Lechn.
    • Solanum chilotanum var. talukdarii Lechn.
    • Solanum chocclo Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum churuspi Hawkes
    • Solanum coeruleiflorum Hawkes
    • Solanum cultum (A.DC.) Berthault
    • Solanum diemii E.Brucher
    • Solanum dubium E.H.L.Krause
    • Solanum erlansonii Anon.
    • Solanum esculentum Neck.
    • Solanum estradea L.E.López
    • Solanum goniocalyx Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum goniocalyx var. caeruleum Vargas
    • Solanum herrerae Juz.
    • Solanum hygrothermicum Ochoa
    • Solanum kesselbrenneri Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum leptostigma Juz.
    • Solanum leptostigma Juz. ex Bukasov
    • Solanum macmillanii Bukasov
    • Solanum maglia var. chubutense Bitter
    • Solanum maglia var. guaytecarum Bitter
    • Solanum mamilliferum Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum molinae Juz.
    • Solanum oceanicum Brücher
    • Solanum ochoanum Lechn.
    • Solanum paramoense Bitter ex Pittier
    • Solanum parmentieri Molina ex Walp.
    • Solanum parvicorollatum Lechn.
    • Solanum phureja Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum phureja var. caeruleum Ochoa
    • Solanum phureja var. erlansonii (Bukasov & Lechnovitch) Ochoa
    • Solanum phureja subsp. estradae (L.E.López) Hawkes
    • Solanum phureja var. flavum Ochoa
    • Solanum phureja subsp. hygrothermicum (Ochoa) Hawkes
    • Solanum phureja var. janck'o-phureja Ochoa
    • Solanum phureja var. macmillanii (Bukasov & Lechnovitch) Ochoa
    • Solanum phureja f. orbiculatum Ochoa
    • Solanum phureja var. pujeri Hawkes
    • Solanum phureja var. rubroroseum Ochoa
    • Solanum phureja var. sanguineum Ochoa
    • Solanum phureja f. sayhuanimayo Ochoa
    • Solanum phureja f. timusi Ochoa
    • Solanum phureja f. viuda Ochoa
    • Solanum riobambense Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum rybinii Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum rybinii var. bogotense Hawkes
    • Solanum rybinii var. boyacense (Juz. & Bukasov) Hawkes
    • Solanum rybinii var. pastoense Hawkes
    • Solanum rybinii var. popayanum Hawkes
    • Solanum sabinei (A.DC.) Berthault
    • Solanum sanmartinense Brücher
    • Solanum sendigena Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum sinense Blanco
    • Solanum stenotomum Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum stenotomum f. alcay-imilla Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. canasense Vargas
    • Solanum stenotomum f. canastilla Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. catari-papa Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. ccami (Bukasov) Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum var. ccami Bukasov
    • Solanum stenotomum var. chapina Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. chilcas Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. chincherae Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. chojllu Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. cochicallo Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. cohuasa Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. cuchipacon Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum var. cyaneum Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. eucaliptae Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum subsp. goniocalyx (Juz. & Bukasov) Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. huallata-chinchi Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. huamanpa-uman Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. huanuchi Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum var. huicu Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. kamara Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. kantillero Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum var. keccrana Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. kehuillo Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. koso-nahui Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum var. megalocalyx Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. negrum Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. orcco-amajaya Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. pallidum Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum var. peruanum Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. phinu Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. phitu-huayacas Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. piticana Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum var. pitiquilla Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. pitoca Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum var. poccoya Vargas
    • Solanum stenotomum f. puca Vargas
    • Solanum stenotomum var. puca-lunca Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum var. putis Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. roseum Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. tiele Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. yana-cculi Hawkes
    • Solanum stenotomum f. yuracc Vargas
    • Solanum subandigenum Hawkes
    • Solanum sylvestre Audib. ex Dunal
    • Solanum tarmense Bukasov
    • Solanum tascalense Brücher
    • Solanum tenuifilamentum Juz. & Bukasov
    • Solanum tuberosum f. acuminatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. aethiopicum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. alaudinum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. album Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. alkka-imilla Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. alkka-silla Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. amajaya Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Juz. & Bukasov) Hawkes
    • Solanum tuberosum var. anglicum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. araucanum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. auriculatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. azul-runa Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. batatinum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. bertuchii Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. borsdorfianum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. brachyceras Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. brachykalukon Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. brevipapillosum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. brevipilosum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. bufoninum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. californicum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. camota Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. cepinum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. chaped Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. chiar-lelekkoya Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. chiar-pala Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum subsp. chiloense (A.DC.) L.I.Kostina
    • Solanum tuberosum var. chiloense A.DC.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. chilotanum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. chojo-sajama Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. chubutense (Bitter) Hawkes
    • Solanum tuberosum f. conicum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. conocarpum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. contortum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. coraila Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. cordiforme Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. corsicanum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. crassifilamentum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. crassipedicellatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. cucumerinum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. cultum
    • Solanum tuberosum var. drakeanum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. elegans Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. elongatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. elongatum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. enode Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. erythroceras Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. fragariinum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. guaytecarum (Bitter) Hawkes
    • Solanum tuberosum var. hassicum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. helenanum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. hispanicum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. holsaticum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. huaca-zapato Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. huichinkka Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. indianum Lechn. ex Bukasov
    • Solanum tuberosum f. infectum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. isla-imilla Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. jancck'o-kkoyllu Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. janck'o-chockella Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. janck'o-pala Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. julianum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. kaunitzii Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. kunurana Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. laram-lelekkoya Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. latum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. laurentianum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. lelekkoya Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. leonhardianum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. mahuinhue Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. malcachu Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. melanoceras Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. menapianum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. merceri Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. milagro Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. montticum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. multibaccatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. murukewillu Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. nigrum Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. nobile Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. norfolcicum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. nucinum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. oculosum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. ovatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. overita Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. palatinatum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. pecorum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. peruvianum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. pichuna Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. pillicuma Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. platyceras Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. polemoniifolium J.Rémy
    • Solanum tuberosum var. praecox Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. praedicandum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. pulo Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. putscheanum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. recurvatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. reniforme Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. rockii Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. rossicum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. rubrisuturatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. rugiorum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. runa Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. sabinei A.DC.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. saccharatum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. salamandrinum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. sani-imilla Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. schnittspahnii Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. sebastianum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. sesquimensale Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. sicha Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. sipancachi Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. strobilinum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. surico Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. taraco Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. tener Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. tenuipedicellatum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. thalassinum Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. tinctorium Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. tinguipaya Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. ulmense Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. versicolor Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. villaroella Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. viride Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. vuchefeldicum Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum var. vulgare Macloskie
    • Solanum tuberosum var. vulgare Hook.f.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. wila-huaycku Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. wila-imilla Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. wila-k'oyu Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. wila-monda Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum f. wila-pala Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. xanthoceras Alef.
    • Solanum tuberosum f. yurac-taraco Ochoa
    • Solanum tuberosum var. yutuense Bukasov & Lechn.
    • Solanum utile Klotzsch
    • Solanum yabari Hawkes
    • Solanum yabari var. cuzcoense Hawkes
    • Solanum yabari var. pepino Hawkes
    • Solanum zykinii Lechn.

The potato is a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum and is a root vegetable native to the Americas, with the plant itself being a perennial in the nightshade family Solanaceae.

Wild potato species, originating in modern-day Peru, can be found throughout the Americas, from Canada to southern Chile. The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated by Native Americans independently in multiple locations, but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes, in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia. Potatoes were domesticated approximately 7,000–10,000 years ago there, from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex. In the Andes region of South America, where the species is indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated.

Potatoes were introduced to Europe from the Americas in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish. Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. As of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize (corn), wheat, and rice. Following millennia of selective breeding, there are now over 5,000 different types of potatoes. Over 99% of presently cultivated potatoes worldwide descended from varieties that originated in the lowlands of south-central Chile. The importance of the potato as a food source and culinary ingredient varies by region and is still changing. It remains an essential crop in Europe, especially Northern and Eastern Europe, where per capita production is still the highest in the world, while the most rapid expansion in production over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia, with China and India leading the world in overall production as of 2018.

Like the tomato, the potato is a nightshade in the genus Solanum, and the vegetative and fruiting parts of the potato contain the toxin solanine which is dangerous for human consumption. Normal potato tubers that have been grown and stored properly produce glycoalkaloids in amounts small enough to be negligible to human health, but if green sections of the plant (namely sprouts and skins) are exposed to light, the tuber can accumulate a high enough concentration of glycoalkaloids to affect human health.

Potato (Wiktionary)

English

Alternative forms

  • potatoe (obsolete)
  • p’tater (dialectal)

Etymology

Borrowed from Spanish patata, itself borrowed from Taíno batata.

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /pəˈteɪ.təʊ/, [pə̥ˈtʰeɪtʰəʊ]
  • (General American) enPR: pə-tāʹtō, IPA(key): /pəˈteɪ.toʊ/, [pə̥ˈtʰeɪɾoʊ], [pə̥ˈtʰeɪɾə]
    • Rhymes: -eɪtəʊ

    Noun

    potato (plural

    ...
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