Rhodiola rosea (commonly golden root, rose root, roseroot, Aaron's rod, Arctic root, king's crown, lignum rhodium, orpin rose) is a perennial flowering plant in the family Crassulaceae. It grows naturally in wild Arctic regions of Europe (including Britain), Asia, and North America ( N.B., Nfld. and Labrador, N.S., QC.; Alaska, Maine, N.Y., N.C., Pa., Vt), and can be propagated as a groundcover. Rhodiola rosea has been used in traditional medicine for several disorders, notably including treatment of anxiety and depression. As of 2019, there is no high-quality randomized or clinical controlled trails adequately assessing its effectiveness for treating "physical fatigue and mild to moderate depression and/or mental fatigue", for "enhancing physical endurance and performance" or "evaluating [its] adaptogenic properties". The United States Food and Drug Administration has issued several warnings to manufacturers of R. rosea dietary supplements for making false health claims about its safety and efficacy.
The plant's status is threatened in many countries due to rapidly growing demand. Supply comes mostly from wild harvesting on an industrial scale, and a combination of growing scarcity and a lack of regulation has led to environmental degradation, substitution/adulteration in the market, and illegal harvesting in protected areas.