Tomate is a savory, glowing red and edible fruit scientifically called Lycopersicon esculentum. It’s native to South America and is presently cultivated throughout the world with several varieties often grown in green houses in cool climates. The fruit is consumed in a huge array of ways like eaten raw, in several delicacies in addition to in drinks.
Botanically it is thought to be a fruit but it’s a vegetable in general terms used for culinary purposes. The fruit is full of lycopene that has many efficient health consequences. Tomato is a member of the nightshade family attaining a height of 1-3 m with a weak stem that sprawls over floor or sometimes twines over other crops. Although it’s a perennial plant but also increased as annual plant from the temperate climates.
The plant has been grown all around the world with tens of thousands of known cultivars adapted to different climatic conditions. Commonly cultivated varieties include tomberries, beefsteak tomato, cherry tomato and plum tomato. They’re one of the main garden plants in usa. China is the largest producer of tomatoes followed by United States and Turkey. About 130 million tonnes of tomatoes were created in 2008 from the entire world. California accounts for 90% generation of the plum tomatoes which comprises 35 percent of the entire world production of tomatoes. They may be categorized as determinate and indeterminate. Determinate type bears all fruits at the same time after attaining a certain elevation. They are usually used for industrial production and are canned. Indeterminate types grow in the kind of tender vines that make fruits continuously unless and until destroyed by frost. An intermediate form between the two can be known that generates another crop even after the creation of the primary crop.
Planta del sol
Los tomates crecen bien con un sol de 7 horas diarias. Los fertilizantes se requieren en el porcentaje de 5-10-10 aunque también se necesitará estiércol y compost. Las variedades cultivadas difieren en su nivel de inmunidad a las enfermedades. Son vulnerables al ataque de hongos, nematodos, chinches, gusanos cortadores, gusanos del tomate y del tabaco, pulgones, bucles de la col, moscas blancas, gusanos del tomate, escarabajos pulga, araña roja, babosas y escarabajos de la patata de Colorado. Cuando los insectos atacan la planta del tomate, la planta genera una hormona peptídica vegetal, la sistemina, que libera inhibidores de la proteasa responsables de frenar el desarrollo de los insectos. Los estambres permanecen cerrados dentro de la corola. Las variedades silvestres requieren polinización cruzada. Las variedades cultivadas en los hogares verdes se autopolinizan. Por lo general, las bayas inmaduras se han recogido en las granjas y se han recubierto con gas etileno para que maduren. Los tomates inmaduros son firmes. Tras la maduración alcanzan un color rojo brillante y son algo blandos al tacto. El etileno es un hidrocarburo fabricado por las plantas que funciona como una señal para favorecer el proceso de maduración. Las variedades modificadas genéticamente también se promocionan con el nombre comercial Flavr Savr.
Tomato includes a compound called lycopene that’s potent antioxidant helpful in preventing the risk of prostate cancer. Additionally, it protects the skin from the effect of damaging UV rays. Tomato is also a rich source of vitamin A and C. when unripe they may be kept at room temperature and discovered until they ripen. When ripe they may be kept in fridge. Like other members of the nightshade family the stalks and leaves of these plants include atropine and other tropane alkaloids that may be poisonous if ingested. Fruit lacks these chemicals. Leaves, stems and unripe fruit include another powerful compound tomatine that’s poisonous. The plant may be poisonous to dogs if they consume it in huge amounts. The crops are dicots with compound leaves frequently called as regular leaf (RL) plants. Leaves are 10-25 cm long, odd pinnate with 5-9 leaflets on petioles with a serrated margin. Both stem and leaves are hairy. The flowers appear at the apical meristem. The anthers have fused edges forming a pillar around the pistil’s style. The flowers are 1-2 centimetres across, yellow, with five pointed lobes on the corolla; they are borne in a cyme of 3-12 together. Seeds come out of the fruit and may be dried or fermented prior to germination.