Tomate is a savory, glowing red and edible fruit scientifically called Lycopersicon esculentum. It’s native to South America and is presently cultivated throughout the world with several varieties often grown in green houses in cool climates. The fruit is consumed in a huge array of ways like eaten raw, in several delicacies in addition to in drinks.
Botanically it is thought to be a fruit but it’s a vegetable in general terms used for culinary purposes. The fruit is full of lycopene that has many efficient health consequences. Tomato is a member of the nightshade family attaining a height of 1-3 m with a weak stem that sprawls over floor or sometimes twines over other crops. Although it’s a perennial plant but also increased as annual plant from the temperate climates.
The plant has been grown all around the world with tens of thousands of known cultivars adapted to different climatic conditions. Commonly cultivated varieties include tomberries, beefsteak tomato, cherry tomato and plum tomato. They’re one of the main garden plants in usa. China is the largest producer of tomatoes followed by United States and Turkey. About 130 million tonnes of tomatoes were created in 2008 from the entire world. California accounts for 90% generation of the plum tomatoes which comprises 35 percent of the entire world production of tomatoes. They may be categorized as determinate and indeterminate. Determinate type bears all fruits at the same time after attaining a certain elevation. They are usually used for industrial production and are canned. Indeterminate types grow in the kind of tender vines that make fruits continuously unless and until destroyed by frost. An intermediate form between the two can be known that generates another crop even after the creation of the primary crop.
Tomatoes grow well with a sun of 7 hours each day. The fertilizers are required in the percentage of 5-10-10 although manure and compost will also be required. Cultivated varieties differ in their level of immunity to diseases. They are vulnerable to the attack of fungi, nematodes, stink bugs, cutworms, tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms, aphids, cabbage loopers, whiteflies, tomato fruitworms, flea beetles, red spider mite, slugs and Colorado potato beetles. When insects attack tomato plant, the plant generates plant peptide hormone, systemin which releases protease inhibitors responsible for slowing the development of insects. The stamens stay closed within the corolla. The wild varieties require cross pollination. The varieties cultivated in green homes are self pollinated. Generally unripe berries have been picked up from the farms and then coated with ethylene gas to become ripe. Unripe tomatoes are firm. After ripening they reach bright red colour and are somewhat soft in touch. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon made by plants that functions as a cue to encourage ripening procedure. Genetically modified varieties are also promoted with the trade name Flavr Savr.
Tomato includes a compound called lycopene that’s potent antioxidant helpful in preventing the risk of prostate cancer. Additionally, it protects the skin from the effect of damaging UV rays. Tomato is also a rich source of vitamin A and C. when unripe they may be kept at room temperature and discovered until they ripen. When ripe they may be kept in fridge. Like other members of the nightshade family the stalks and leaves of these plants include atropine and other tropane alkaloids that may be poisonous if ingested. Fruit lacks these chemicals. Leaves, stems and unripe fruit include another powerful compound tomatine that’s poisonous. The plant may be poisonous to dogs if they consume it in huge amounts. The crops are dicots with compound leaves frequently called as regular leaf (RL) plants. Leaves are 10-25 cm long, odd pinnate with 5-9 leaflets on petioles with a serrated margin. Both stem and leaves are hairy. The flowers appear at the apical meristem. The anthers have fused edges forming a pillar around the pistil’s style. The flowers are 1-2 centimetres across, yellow, with five pointed lobes on the corolla; they are borne in a cyme of 3-12 together. Seeds come out of the fruit and may be dried or fermented prior to germination.